Author: Dr. Christopher Rutty

Context: Diabetes Before 1920

Convincing Macleod

Banting and Best: Progress in the Lab

It works! Now what?

The Discovery Goes Public

The History of Connaught

Making Insulin: Part 1

Diabetic “Resurrections”

Patent Protection

Eli Lilly

Making Insulin: Part 2

Novo Nordisk

The Nobel Prize

Nothing Better than Insulin

Note on sources: There are extensive archival and online information sources documenting the discovery of insulin, the history of the Connaught Antitoxin Labs, and the evolution of Canadian public health policy. In terms of the experimental work carried out by Frederick Banting, Charles Best, J.J.R. Macleod and James Collip between 1920 and 1923, the most authoritative and detailed source is “The Story of Insulin,” by Michael Bliss (University of Chicago Press, 1982). Drawing on original documents and interviews with surviving witnesses, Bliss meticulously reconstructed the discovery process and sought to debunk some of the myths that had grown up about the U of T insulin story over many decades.